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Adhesives.org Article: How Structural Adhesives are Selected

Posted By ASC, Tuesday, December 20, 2016

The reasons for choosing structural adhesives over mechanical fasteners are many. These include:

·         No damage or breaching of the substrate (e.g. drilled holes)

·         No risk of heat distortion owing to welding

·         Ability to join dissimilar substrates

·         Elimination of corrosion through galvanic processes.

·         Stronger bonds owing to a bond area that is equally strong throughout.

·         Improved aesthetics.

 

Structural adhesives also have several advantages over other types of adhesive:

·         High load bearing properties.

·         High resistance to environmental and chemical stress.

·         Solvent-free and solvent resistant.

·         Available with a range of cure times to suit production processes.

·         Tolerate a wide range of temperatures

·         No need for air curing or moisture curing

 

The only problem with structural adhesives, is that there are so many different kinds with so many varying properties that it can be difficult to make a choice. Apart from load bearing capacity and processing requirements, the following features play a role.

 

Processing requirements:

·         Operating temperatures

·         Humidity or moisture exposure

·         UV exposure

·         Chemical resistance (e.g. oil, gasoline, jet fuel, detergents)

·         Duration of exposure to chemical agents

 

Hygiene and environment:

·         Presence or absence of toxic compounds and special disposal requirements.

·         Food packaging requires special adhesives for food safety

·         Medical grade adhesives must fulfill safety criteria

 

Mechanical stress tolerances:

·         Impact

·         Vibration

·         Level of mechanical stress to bond

 

The chosen adhesive must then be tested for the specific application engineers intend it to be used for.

 

 

There are various types of structural adhesives

 

When considering different types of structural adhesives, it is important to note that customization is often possible. Broadly speaking:

 

·         Acrylics form the strongest bonds with plastics, but work well with metals. However, they have less vibration and impact resistance and lower tolerance to temperature extremes.

 

·         Cyanoacrylates exhibit good shear strength when used to bond plastics and rubbers. However, priming may be required, and peel and impact resistance tends to be lower.

 

·         Urethanes have the advantage of flexibility and are good for bonding wood and metal, plus there is a price advantage, but the bonds are weaker, and high temperatures are not tolerated.

 

·         Epoxies are extremely versatile and varied and have excellent bond strength when used on metals. Both flexible and rigid epoxies are available. Toughened epoxies are the most durable, and the best able to handle extreme conditions. However, apart from one-part heat cure epoxies, the adhesives require surface preparation to remove all oils from joint surfaces.

 

 

Handling and processing factors

 

Just choosing a technically suitable structural adhesive based on the above criteria may not result in the best possible selection. Handling and processing requirements must also be considered.

 

For example, two part epoxies require mixing, but although one part epoxies do not, and have higher sheer strengths as well as high temperature and solvent tolerance, shelf life is limited, and recommended cure temperatures must be observed.

 

Cyanoacrylates may seem more convenient since they do not require mixing and have a long pot life, but once components are positioned, they cannot be moved, and there is the potential for a white haze look at the bond line.

 

Storage conditions also come into play. Two part epoxies store well at room temperature, but urethanes and acrylates do not. In addition, the adhesives that allow for repositioning of parts generally have...

 

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New Cold Foil Adhesives Released by Zeller + Gmelin

Posted By ASC, Friday, December 16, 2016

A new range of cold foil adhesives released by Zeller + Gmelin will be used in sheet fed and narrow web letterpress applications. The adhesive has cold foil effects that will result in sharper printing definition, even when high volume print runs are performed. The new range consist of two adhesives: Uvalux LED U0850 and LED U0851. Both can be UV cured at 385 and 395 nm wavelengths.

 

The primary difference between the two products is their coloring. Uvalux LED U0850 has a yellowish tinge and is suitable for gold foil printing, while Uvalux LED U0851 has a grey coloration making it suitable for silver foils. Each of these is available in two variants: a standard migration formula, and a low migration formula.

 

The company reports several benefits associated with its new products including energy savings, the elimination of warm up time, and a lack of pollutants such as mercury and ozone emissions. Both can be used on temperature sensitive substrates.

 

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LORD Corporation Announces Improvements to Fusor Range

Posted By ASC, Thursday, December 15, 2016

LORD Corporation, makers of the Fusor range of direct to metal adhesives and sealants and high definition seam sealers, has announced improvements to its products. The company reports that shelf life has been extended by 25 percent and skin time has been reduced to 15 to 45 minutes. LORD says that the Fusor range now offers the longest shelf life to be found in any comparable single-component sealant.

 

The products are used by OEMs in applications such as sealing truck bed seams, standing seams, brushed seams and cosmetic seams. The improvements have been made without affecting the Fusor range’s current advantages, including flexibility, zero shrinkage, UV resistance, and non-yellowing properties. Cracking and sagging have also been eliminated, and the sealant bonds well with bare or primed surfaces. In addition, the formula has a very low VOC content and is free of solvents.

 

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EPA Rushes to Define Fuel Economy Targets Ahead of New Administration

Posted By ASC, Tuesday, December 13, 2016

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has finalized its draft fuel efficiency requirements for auto manufacturers ahead of the expected date. The regulations are aimed at increasing fuel efficiency to over 50 miles per gallon on average, while reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and final formalization of the requirements is expected before April 2018.

There is some uncertainty about whether these regulations might be overturned during a Trump presidency. The president-elect has openly questioned whether emissions are related to climate change, and has appointed Myron Ebbel to develop a transition strategy for the EPA.

 

The EPA has said that the new requirements are realistic and achievable based on a 2015 study by the National Academy of Sciences. To date, vehicle manufacturing companies have used new engine technologies, electric and hybrid vehicles, improved aerodynamics and lightweighting strategies to reduce emissions and improve fuel efficiency. These strategies have also been welcomed by consumer associations thanks to reductions in consumer fuel costs.

 

Analysts have remarked that although the average fuel efficiency target of 54.5 miles per gallon seems large, “adjustment factors” will be taken into account, resulting in fuel consumption of between 35 and 75 miles per gallon in real terms. Adjustment factors include carbon credit trading, and the size of the vehicle. Smaller cars would therefore have a fuel efficiency of about 61.1 miles per gallon, while the biggest trucks would realize fuel efficiency levels of between 30.2 and 50.4 miles per gallon.

 

If the new regulations are enforced, they would result in further fuel-efficiency progress, building on the industry’s 26 percent improvement in fuel economy between 2004 and 2014.

 

The early announcement of the new fuel efficiency regulations is believed to be a strategy on the part of the Obama administration aimed at preventing a Trump administration from easing the pressure that emissions reduction and fuel efficiency targets place on car makers.

 

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Bostik Adhesive Makes Innovative Napkin an Award Winner

Posted By ASC, Thursday, December 8, 2016

Gant Innovations, a company that manufactures adhesive napkins that adhere to clothing has won the Business Worldwide Magazine’s (BWM) Company of the Year award in the tissue and hygiene industry category. The adhesive napkin relies solely on an adhesive that activates when the reusable napkin is opened, and uses no tape or reinforcement. The company says that the concept was inspired by TV footage showing diners awkwardly struggling to keep their napkins in place, and the product is being used in a range of applications, including dentistry and precision engineering, or simply as a bib for children.

 

Gant Innovations partnered with the Bostik Europe to develop the adhesive that makes this innovation possible, and the product has been well-received by its target markets. BWM commented that the concept itself, and the six years of research taken to achieve a market-ready product, were “impressive”.

 

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Geckos Inspire Yet Another Revolutionary Adhesive

Posted By ASC, Wednesday, December 7, 2016

Cape Western Reserve University working at the Dayton Air Force Research Laboratory in partnership with Chinese scholars has developed a new dry adhesive inspired by the tiny hairs on gecko’s feet that allow them to cling to improbable surfaces. The adhesive bonds even more strongly at temperatures as high as 1,832 degrees Fahrenheit, the temperature of molten silver, and still retains its properties when temperatures plummet as low as -320 degrees or the temperature of liquid nitrogen.

 

The adhesive comes in the form of a dry adhesive tape based on vertical carbon nanotubes, and is the only adhesive to work at such great temperature extremes. The nanotubes penetrate microscopic substrate cavities. Cold doesn’t alter the substrate’s surface structure, and heat makes the surface even rougher, allowing the nanotubes to bond even more strongly to the substrate. At room temperature, the tape’s adhesion is comparable to that of regular adhesive tapes, but it maintains the same bond strength at extremely low temperatures, and bonds twice as strongly to substrates at 785 degrees Fahrenheit.

 

The researchers say they envision the electrical and heat conducting adhesive being used in applications ranging from space exploration technology to household appliances and electronics.

 

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Projected Decrease in Global Transportation Emissions Aided by Use of Adhesives vs. Mechanical Fasteners

Posted By ASC, Monday, December 5, 2016

The International Council on Clean Transportation recently published a graph showing the projected convergence of emissions regulations globally by 2025. Much of the projected decrease in emissions will result from fuel economies realized through lightweighting, and that’s where adhesives have a vital role to play as auto makers ditch the weight of mechanical fasteners and turn to alternative materials and the adhesives needed to effectively bond the new materials.

 

The trend lines are clear, and by 2025, there will only be 10 to 15 percent variance between emissions regulations globally. This harmonization will provide common performance targets across regions. According to an analysis by Henkel Adhesives, it is predicted that the convergence will lead to the use of common designs that will improve manufacturing flexibility and reduce costs. OEMs will be designing and building vehicle platforms and components to serve a market where common lightweighting goals to reach emissions targets will be shared, and where vehicle lightweighting programs will excite global interest.

 

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Specialty Rosin, Polyterpene Resins and Sensory Ingredients Company Pinova Inc. Acquired

Posted By ASC, Friday, December 2, 2016

Symrise AG has finalized an agreement with DRT regarding the latter’s acquisition of Pinova Inc, producers of specialty rosin, polyterpene resins and sensory ingredients used in, amongst others, the adhesives and coatings industry. DRT will be taking on Pinova’s product portfolio and its manufacturing facility in Brunswick. The transaction is valued at $150 million, and Pinova’s 2016 revenue is expected to total $111 million. Symrise and DRT have agreed to collaborate in their product development efforts and the supply of strategic raw materials. Symrise will continue to obtain raw materials through Pinova.

 

Antitrust approval is still awaited, but this is expected to occur at the end of 2016, allowing DRT to integrate Pinova products and facilities with its existing Effingham County, Georgia investment in new production facilities. The company said that the two facilities would complement each other, providing further growth opportunities for the company. Symrise says that it will be focusing on advancing its Scent and Care business with Pinova forming an important part of its ingredients supply portfolio.

 

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New Silicone-Based Adhesives from Dow Corning for the Appliance Industry

Posted By ASC, Thursday, December 1, 2016

Dow Corning has released two new silicone-based adhesives and sealants targeting the appliance manufacturing industry. The company says the new products will improve manufacturing efficiencies, realize savings, and expand design options.

 

Its surface 750 adhesive sealant is intended for plastic substrates, and overcomes the bonding issues associated with low surface energy substrates. In addition, it is introducing an RTV hot melt silicone adhesive, HM-2600, that will facilitate high-speed assembly.

 

The 750 plastic adhesive sealant is specifically designed for use on substrates such as polypropylene, polyethylene and fluoropolymers. It will be used for sealing plumbing, electrical line or duct penetration areas, for bonding mechanical enclosures, and for the attachment of decorative components. The adhesive sealant is UV resistant and durable.

 

The clear HM-2600 silicone assembly sealant is suitable for use across a wide range of substrates including metals and plastics, and instant green strength will help manufacturers to speed throughput. Dow Corning has obtained food and drinking water contact certification for the product, and its chemical stability, electrical properties, UV and weather resistance, and tolerance of hot and cold temperatures will make it suitable for use in the manufacture of a wide range of appliances.

 

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DyStar Acquires Speciality Chemicals Units From Emerald

Posted By ASC, Tuesday, November 29, 2016

The US-based Dystar Group, a subsidiary of Sinagapore’s DyStar Holdings, has announced the acquisition of three business units from Emerald Performance Materials LLC. The specialty chemicals business units are Carolina Chemical, Hilton Davis and Foam Control. All three manufacture specialty chemicals for both industrial and consumer applications.

 

DyStar says that the three units are being integrated into the group to enable the company to offer a broader portfolio of products to retail brands, both regionally and in multi-national markets. The company says that the strategic acquisitions will enhance its profitability and growth in the long term.

 

Financial advisors Allen & Overy and Parker Poe Adams & Bernstein advised Dystar during negotiations, while KeyBank acted on behalf of Emerald. The finalization of the transaction was welcomed by Dystar. Its chairman commented that the transaction will strengthen DyStar’s global position as a specialty chemical manufacturer.

 

 

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